Are you the parent of a child with Autism receiving special education services from your school district? Have special educators in your district tried to change your child’s IEP services, without your approval? Are you frustrated and not sure whether it is even allowed and what to do about it? This article will give you information about why school districts cannot implement a child in special education’s IEP, without parental approval; and four advocacy tips to empower you as you overcome this roadblock!Several courts have ruled including the US Supreme Court; that school districts must seek a due process hearing if they want to implement an IEP, without a parent’s approval. For example: If your school district states that your child with Autism no longer needs special education services, and they are going to stop the services; they are required to file for a due process hearing. Unfortunately, you may have to be assertively persistent in your advocacy to make sure that school employees understand this.Advocacy Tips:1. If your school district develops an IEP at a meeting that you do not agree with; the next day send the school district a letter, explaining to them in detail why you disagree with the proposed IEP. Keep a copy for yourself, and hand deliver the letter to the school district.2. If your school does not file for a due process hearing (before implementation of the unapproved IEP), you may file for a due process hearing yourself, and ask for a “stay put” placement as well as services (from the last agreed upon IEP). You should also ask the hearing officer to change the burden of proof to the school district, since they refused to file, since most States place the burden on the party that files (only six states (CT, DE. NJ, NY, NV, and WV place the burden of proof always on the school district).3. If the school personnel do file due process so that they can implement an IEP that you do not agree with (or if you are ready to file to stop the school from implementing an unapproved IEP); make arrangements to take your child to a qualified evaluator for an independent educational evaluation (IEE). This will help you determine your child’s disabilities, or specifically what related and special education services your child needs. The evaluation report can be used at due process as your evidence that the schools proposed IEP will not provide your child an appropriate education.4. If your school district does try to implement an IEP that you do not believe will give your child an appropriate education, this may leave the school district vulnerable to be required to pay for a private placement or services. IDEA 2004 allows parents to seek private placement and services for lack of a free appropriate public education (FAPE); and then seek reimbursement. Finding a child ineligible for related and special education services has required many schools around the country, to bear the cost of the child’s private services and schooling.In the above example if educators states that your child with Autism is no longer eligible for special education services, you may be able to seek private services and/or placement, and then file due process for reimbursement of the private services cost.As a parent you need to assertively and persistently advocate for your child, so that he or she can be ready for post school learning and a productive adult life! Good luck!
The best predictor of a good ending is a good beginning. The old adage is a true today as when it was first uttered so long ago that no one can clearly say who first spoke those words. When it comes to the education of young children this proverb has such tremendous relevance that it is hard to overstate its importance. All learning and life experience is moulded by what happens to the child in the early years of his or her life. The influence of the family is of major importance but the influence of the educational opportunities offered to young children is just as powerful and, in some ways, more powerful. For it is the impact of early childhood education that determines the attitude a child will take to formal schooling at primary or secondary level.The world today is a troubled place. We seem to be getting better at hating one another. We seem less and less able to accept people who are different from us. In a world riddled with violence, crime, bullying, chaos and unpredictability we have to ask some important questions. Why is it that some childrenDo not become violent?Do not become bullies?Do not become depressed?Do not loath themselves and others?Do not despair and give up on life?These may not be the most profound questions being posed in today’s world but they are among the most important. Where can we turn to discern the answers to these questions? What do we know that can help us unpack the issues embedded in them and come to a vision of how to raise and educate young children?The answers to these and other questions about children are emerging from new research about how the human brain grows and develops. Although we are a long way off knowing exactly who we can prevent violence and depression we have learned a good deal about how to foster the brain’s potential as an organ to help children grow to become contributing and productive members of society. Before we explore some of the implications from this research we need to briefly review the five areas of development that all children pass through during childhood.Understanding Child DevelopmentThere are five areas of development that children undergo as they grow to be young adults. These steps appear in a rather predictable sequence, one after the other. They are not like steps of a ladder leading to higher and higher levels. Rather, they are like a spiral of stages through which a child cycles endlessly as they grow and mature. At some point the highest level of attainment may not be reached in a given area but that does not mean the child cannot progress to other areas of the spiral.The five areas of child development are:oPhysical
They can be easily remembered by the use of the rather unfortunate acronym “PILES”.Physical DevelopmentThis area of child development is no doubt the easiest to understand and observe. Physical development includes: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, motor control, motor coordination and kinaesthetic feedback. Let’s explain each of these briefly.oGross motor skills are those movements of the large muscles of the legs, trunk and arms.oFine motor skills are the movements of the small muscles of the fingers and hands.oMotor control is the ability to move these large and small muscles.
oMotor coordination is the ability to move these muscles in a smooth and fluid pattern of motion.
oKinaesthetic feedback is the body’s ability to receive input to the muscles from the external environment so the person knows where his body is positioned in space.Intellectual DevelopmentThis area relates to the level of intelligence of a child in general and to the various aspects of intelligence that influence overall level of general ability. Among these many aspects are:oVerbal skills-our ability to communicate with words our ideas, attitudes, beliefs, thoughts and emotions.
oNon-verbal skills-our ability to use visual and spatial-perceptual skills to interpret the world around us.
oAttention span-the ability to sustain a focus on a stimulus for a sufficient period of time to interpret it and understand it.
oConcentration-our ability to utilise attention to juggle stimuli into various permutations as necessary to analyse it accurately.
oVisual-motor skills-the ability to coordinate the movements of the eyes and hands to manipulate objects effectively.
oVisual-perceptual skills-the ability to analyse stimuli visually without necessarily manipulating them manually.
oMemory-can be auditory or visual (or even kinaesthetic as in the case of remember dance steps) and can be divided into some important sub-types:
– Immediate recall-ability to hold input long enough to recall it straight away if required to do so
– Short-term memory-ability to hold input over a longer period of time, perhaps minutes or hours
– Long-term memory-ability to store input and recall is well after it has been perceived, perhaps days or months, even years laterLinguistic DevelopmentLinguistic development refers to language usage. Like other areas of child development it can be divided into sub-types.oReceptive language-our ability to understand spoken language when we hear it
oExpressive language-our ability to use spoken language to communicate to others
oPragmatic language-the ability to understand humour, irony, sarcasm and know how to respond appropriate to what another has said or asked as well as know when to wait and listen
oSelf-talk-the ability to use internal, silent language to think through problems, cope with difficulties and postpone impulses
oReasoning-the ability to think through problems, usually with self-talk but at other times aloud, create plans of action using words
oCreative thinking-although not strictly a linguistic function I include it here because many people use language creatively, in new and inventive ways (e.g. Joyce, Beckett)Emotional DevelopmentThis aspect of development, along with social development, is probably one of the most underrated but yet most important aspects of learning how to live in the world. No matter how excellent intellectual, physical and linguistic development may be we are doomed to live lives of frustration and difficult if we have not gained satisfactory emotional development. It includes:oFrustration tolerance-the ability to cope effectively when things do not go the way we want or expect
oImpulse control-the ability to think before we act and not do everything that comes into our head
oAnger management-ability to resolve conflict without recourse to verbal or physical violence
oInter-personal intelligence-understanding the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of others
oIntra-personal intelligence-understand our own attitudes, beliefs and motivationsSocial DevelopmentoSharing-knowing how to ask to use the materials that belong to another
oTurn-taking-knowing when it is your turn to do something and when to ask if you can do it
oCooperation-the skills of working with others towards a group goal of task
oCollaboration-the ability to communication your input in a meaningful way when working with others.
Again it is necessary to repeat that emotional and social development play a hugely important role in our ability to live lives of dignity and respect. They also largely determine how well we will get along with workmates, bosses and loved ones including life-partners.When we recognise that all children pass through each area of development we design educational programme for them that are developmentally appropriate. Most pre-schools have done just that. Unfortunately many early years settings succumb to pressure and push children towards academic goals and objectives, sometimes almost obsessively. Indeed, the curriculum in our junior and senior infant classes is largely developmentally inappropriate. It is far too teacher and parent-centred and far too little child-centred. Regardless, appropriate or inappropriate, it is not enough to focus on child development alone in our work with young children. We must begin to recognise the inborn potential locked within the child’s brain.The Human BrainLocked inside the brain are the potentialities that make us human. We are born with the potential for:oLove Hate
It is the responsibilities of adults to unlock the positive potentialities of the brain and prevent the negative from appearing.All educational experiences of children in the early years, indeed all educational experiences of children across the entire school years, must place an emphasis on releasing the positive potential that lies within the brain. Recent brain research, much of it conducted by Dr. Bruce Perry in Texas, has illuminated six core strengths, each of them related to brain growth and development that must be a focus in development appropriate educational programmes for young children.The Six Core StrengthsBruce Perry and his colleagues at the Child Trauma Academy in Texas have identified six strengths that are related to the predictable sequence of brain growth and development. These six strengths, if nurtured and fostered appropriately, will help a child grow to become a productive member of society. They are:oAttachment
AttachmentThe first of the six core strengths occurs in infancy. It is the loving bond between the infant and the primary caregiver. Early attachment theorists’ conceiver of the primary caregiver as the mother but it is now recognised that it could as well be the father, grandparent or any loving person. The primary giver, when providing consistent and predictable nurturing to the infant creates what is known as a “secure” attachment. This is accomplished in that rhythmic dance between infant and caregiver; the loving cuddles, hugs, smiles and noises that pass between caregiver and infant. Should this dance be out of step, unpredictable, highly inconsistent or chaotic an “insecure” attachment is formed. When attachments are secure the infant learns that it is lovable and loved, that adults will provide nurture and care and that the world is a safe place. When attachment is insecure the infant learns the opposite.As the child grows from a base of secure attachment he or she becomes ready to love and be a friend. A secure attachment creates the capacity to form and maintain healthy emotional bonds with another. Attachment is the template through which we view the world and people in it.Self-RegulationSelf-regulation is the capacity to think before you act. Little children are not good at this, they learn this skill as they grow if they are guided by caring adults who show them how to stop and think. Self-regulation is the ability to take note of our primary urges such as hunger, elimination, comfort and control them. In other words, it is the ability to postpone gratification and wait for it to arrive. Good self-regulation prevents anger outbursts and temper tantrums and helps us cope with frustration and tolerate stress. It is a life skill that must be learned and, like all the core strengths, its roots are in the neuronal connections deep inside the brain.AffiliationAffiliation is the glue of healthy human relationships. When children are educated in an environment and facilitates positive peer interactions through play and creative group learning projects they develop the strength of affiliation. It is the ability to “join in” and work with others to create something stronger and more lasting than is usually created by one person alone. Affiliation makes it possible to produce something stronger and more creative than is accomplished by one alone. Affiliation brings into the child’s awareness that he or she is not an “I” alone but a “We” together.AttunementAttunement is the strength of seeing beyond ourselves. It is the ability to recognise the strengths, needs, values and interests of others. Attunement begins rather simply in childhood. A child first recognises that I am a girl, he is a boy. Through the early years of education it becomes more nuanced: he is from India and likes different food than I, she is from Kenya and speak with a different accent than I. Attunement helps children see similiarities rather than differences because as the child progresses from seeing different colour skin and different ways of speaking he or she begins to recognise that people are more similar than different. That brings us to the next core strength.ToleranceWhen the child develops the core strength of attunement it learns that difference isn’t really all that important. The child learns that difference is easily tolerated. Through this learning the child develops the awareness that is difference that unites all human beings. Tolerance depends on attunement and requires patience and an opportunity to live and learn with people who at first glance seem “different”. We must overcome the fear of difference to become tolerant.RespectThe last core strength is respect. Respect is a life-long developmental process. Respect extends from respect of self to respect of others. It is the last core strength to develop, requires a proper environment and an opportunity to meet a variety of people. Genuine respect celebrates diversity and seeks it out. Children who respect other children, who have developed this core strength, do not shy away from people who seem different. An environment in which many children are grouped together to learn, explore and play will foster the core strength of respect.How the Brain GrowsThe brain grows from the bottom to the top. Each of the core strengths is related to a stage and site of brain growth. In infancy attachment bonds are acquired and lay down emotional signals deep within the brain. At the same time the brain stem is seeing to it that bodily functions can be self-regulated. Later on in childhood the emotional centres of the brain come under increasing control so temper tantrums disappear and the child controls their emotional life. In mid-childhood the child’s brain begins to develop the capacity to think and reflect on the external environment. It is at this stage when the frontal areas of the brain begin to mature and it is at this stage in brain growth when the core strengths of affiliation, attunement, tolerance and respect can mature as well.The Classroom and the Brain’s Core StrengthsThe education of young children must be undertaken with the core strengths in mind. Classrooms where there is peace and harmony among a wide variety of children will create opportunities for affiliation, tolerance and respect to develop. These classroom must be characterised by play, creative exploration of objects, lessons which are activity-based not teacher-lectured. There must be challenge to the brain in the form of innovative lessons and teaching methodologies. Cooperative learning activities must be part of the school day. The classroom should occasionally consist of an opportunity to engage in cooperative, mixed-ability groupwork. There must be an opportunity for long-term, thematic projects to be explored. The teacher should be a guide, always teaching with the core strengths in mind, always observing children and noticing which of them need more structure and guidance as they grow through the core strengths. The teacher must also be a person the children perceive as predictable and caring, patient and kind; a person who will not obsessively focus on mistakes.Whose Responsibility is It?We have learned that the child’s brain grows in a predictable sequence and associated with this growth are six core strengths for healthy living in the world. Every child is born with a brain possessing the potential to full develop these core strengths. However every brain must have an opportunity to interact with a classroom and home environment that facilitates the development of these strengths. It is the responsibility of adults, particularly parents and teachers to get it right.
Everybody wants their child to read well. The question is how can you help, right? Well, if you understand a few basic concepts, you’ll be able to evaluate your child’s reading skills and support their literacy goals just like a pro!When checking to see how a child is reading, a good teacher looks at several key items that can tell some pretty important information of where that child is at with their reading development. Remember, to properly manage and instruct, we have to be able to measure progress. Evaluations help us with that.First, before we begin, let’s take a look at the prize. Our goal is ultimately about the Big F…. That’s right, fluency. This is the grand prize. To achieve fluency, a lot of little steps have to occur and a lot of little parts need to work together.Fluency? What does fluency really mean and how can we break it down for us enough to help our own child? Some might tend to think that fluency is about how fast somebody can read – how someone can go through the mechanics of decoding. While this is a partially correct, it’s certainly not the whole story.Fluency is composed of two parts, the first of which may not sound too familiar – will be our biggest focus now: Automaticity. The word itself is mouthful, but it’s important so lets say it aloud again: Auto-ma-ti-city!Automaticity simply refers to the speed and accuracy of word recognition and spelling. Achieving automaticity in the mechanics of reading and writing frees up a child’s brain for comprehension, the second part of fluency. And there you have it. Fluency equals automaticity and comprehension.For now, let us focus on automaticity. Have you ever heard the axiom: “We’re learning to read, so we can read to learn”? Children are in fact learning to read, so that when they’re older they can read to learn about new and wonderful things.Automaticity is the first step makes it all happen, and this is where you will be evaluating your child’s skills. (Now just for the record, comprehension skills are also simultaneously developing as well)A good way to look at automaticity is like seeing the process that goes into developing a habit. We work on developing good habits during our learning time, our practice time, our reflection time, and our warm up times. Spending time explicitly learning the correct way becomes second nature or automatic after awhile.Take for example an ice skating performer who beautifully twirls on the ice in front of large crowds. Though she makes it look easy and graceful, we didn’t see all the hours she spent, all the weeks and months she sacrificed in order to break down the parts of the routing in the smallest of units, so that when she expresses herself out on the ice, it’s automatic and beautiful. In fact, she performs most of her routine, without even thinking about it – with automaticity.Here are a few key points to evaluate your child.Be a good observer: What letters to do they have trouble sounding out or spelling? Make a note of them. Do they omit words when reading a sentence?Don’t assess your child at his or her level of frustration: Try not to evaluate your child when she/he is at her point of giving up. You are evaluating in order to find the sweet spot of instruction, called the instructional zone.Okay, now your evaluation will change as your child progresses, but here are a few tenets to keep in mind:Phonological awareness: Observe your child’s ability to pay attention to and identify, and reflect on various sound segments of speech. Are they using blends correctly? (Blends are two letters joined together to make another sound, such as sl as in sling or fl and in flag.)Consonant-Vowel Patterns: How is their use of consonants -vowel patterns shaping? For example, vowel patterns could be the ea as in team, ee as in seen, ai as in rain or train, and finally, ou as in shout. Make a note of these and review them when you are reading together.Ultimately, there are a number of different ways to assess your child, but the best way to do this would be give your own spelling test, which is a lot easier done than said.How would you do this? Well, write down twenty words that your child may or may not be able to spell. If you don’t know which words to use, look at one or more of their books and identify twenty from there. Then, give your child a blank sheet of paper and have him or her number the paper all the way up to the number twenty. Read the chosen words aloud and have your child spell the words out. If you wish, you can use the word in a sentence to help give your child a context for the word usage. Complete the spelling list and make your assessment. Mark which ones they missed and how they missed it. Did they leave out a letter, add in a letter, or omit a letter? Keep your child’s test and make the corrections. Keep the same word list and revisit the test in a couple of weeks. Again, make the corrections and repeat until all the words in the list are correct.To strengthen your child’s skills with developing phonemic awareness and patterns, the use of flash cards can significantly help. Flashcards strengthen a child’s ability to sort, categorize, and recall information quickly – leading to automaticity. Follow these steps and you will be on your way to understanding where your child is and how you can support them in getting to where they need to be – fluency.